Treatment of amphetamine abuse use disorder: a systematic review of a recent health concern PMC

You’ve built up a tolerance if you need larger doses of amphetamines to achieve the same effect that lower doses once created. The estimated annual prevalence of a stimulant use disorder involving amphetamines is 0.2 percent among U.S. adults, according to the DSM-5. A person can recover from drug misuse or SUD and improve their relationships, professional life, sense of self, and physical and mental health. A person’s first step toward recovery is to reach out to a friend, family member, or healthcare professional to seek help. A person may need help for different types of substances or for mental health conditions alongside substance misuse.

Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms

During periods of non-use, the user may recall the feeling of euphoria produced by the drug and desire to take it again. In certain cases, psychotic symptoms can last for months or years after methamphetamine abuse has ceased. Stress has been shown to precipitate spontaneous recurrence of methamphetamine psychosis in formerly psychotic methamphetamine abusers. No tests can determine drug misuse or addiction, but a medical professional can discuss a person’s substance use with them and assess possible risk factors that support the possibility. Doctors prescribe amphetamines for conditions such as ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and depression.

Treatment / Management

  • Two reviewers participated in searching the literature (M.E and A.M; the firth author).
  • These medicines may interact with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome.
  • Populations under-represented in the literature must also be addressed in future research.
  • Patients with agitation should be treated with parenteral benzodiazepines.
  • Different treatment options may be indicated for various degrees of severity of disorder.
  • This may cause collapsed veins, tetanus, abscesses, and damage to the heart, lungs, liver, and brain.

The authors wish to state that the material presented in this review reflect only their views and not necessarily those of the Shire Pharmaceuticals. A comparison of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of orally versus intravenously administered 50 mg lisdexamfetamine. Displacement amphetamine addiction was determined in vitro at a lisdexamfetamine concentration of 10μM. The self-help support group message is that addiction is an ongoing disorder with a danger of relapse. Self-help support groups can decrease the sense of shame and isolation that can lead to relapse.

What’s known about amphetamines and overdose?

In total, 55 primary outcome measures were used (inclusive of variations) 93 times (as some studies had multiple primary outcomes). The most common primary outcome measure reported was abstinence (51 times, 55%), followed by cravings (10 times, 11%). For abstinence, urine drug screens (UDS) were used 41 times (80%) and analysed or defined in 16 different ways. The most common method for analysing UDS was weekly proportion of AMPH/MA-free UDS, or overall proportion of AMPH/MA-free UDS. There were 75 distinct secondary outcomes inclusive of variations and often analysed differently to the primary outcomes of the same domain. The most common secondary outcome measure reported was craving (25 times), predominantly reported using the visual analogue scale (VAS) (16 times, 64% of the cravings measures).

Study Selection and Characteristics

Amphetamine Addiction

The current systematic review aims to address these two gaps in the research literature. The primary action of amphetamine is to increase synaptic concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters, thereby indirectly enhancing noradrenergic, dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS. Although amphetamine’s isomers are also powerful 5-HT-releasing agents in vivo (Heal et al., 1998; Kuczenski et al., 1995), this action does not appear to contribute to their efficacy in treating ADHD.

Amphetamine Addiction

Amphetamine Addiction

The 3-D structures of the catecholamines and amphetamine molecules reveal the long planar conformation that is common to all of these compounds. NET (noradrenaline transporter), DAT (dopamine transporter) and SERT (5-HT transporter). Several currently marketed amphetamine formulations contain both enantiomers, including those marketed under the brand names Adderall, Adderall XR, Mydayis,[note 1] Adzenys ER, Adzenys XR-ODT, Dyanavel XR, Evekeo, and Evekeo ODT.

Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders

  • Based on observations that the isomers of amphetamine evoke very large and rapid increases in the efflux of dopamine and noradrenaline in the PFC and dopamine in the striatum, it was predicted that these drugs would be highly effective in the treatment of ADHD.
  • Obtaining an accurate medication history for the patient may allow a diagnosis to be made independently of drug metabolite testing.
  • Cross-generalisation occurs between the subjective cues evoked by amphetamine’s d- and l-isomers, indicating a common neurochemical mechanism (Schechter, 1978).
  • This prohibited meta-analysis of the literature but allowed for a comprehensive report on the current status of the research.

There is an overall paucity of high-quality data from human subjects to base conclusions on naltrexone’s efficacy. As a result, consultation with an addiction specialist, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group therapy remain the primary means to treat amphetamine use disorder. The review also indicated that BCBT alone or in combination with pharmacological treatments was efficacious in either abstinence from amphetamines or reduced amphetamines abuse with medium or large effect sizes [20–23].

  • Seeking amphetamine addiction rehabilitation is an important step toward taking back control of your life and starting the process of recovery.
  • Forty-two percent of individuals who had used MA in the prior 12 months also reported being diagnosed or treated for a concurrent mental illness—three times as high as the non-illicit drug-using population [80].
  • Doctors prescribe amphetamines for conditions such as ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and depression.
  • They received their optimal dose of MES-amphetamine XR, an equivalent dose of lisdexamfetamine in terms of d-amphetamine base, or placebo.

Can addiction be treated successfully?

Amphetamines’ Effects on Your Brain

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